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There has been ample talk and plenty of anecdotal evidence of inflation this year, none of which has seemed to elicit much of a response from gold…until this month, that is. The first inflation-related report was released on 12 May from the Bureau of Labor and Statistics (BLS)—surprising the market with a 4.2% annual increase in the consumer price index (CPI).1 Gold fell that day, as the metal continued to take a skeptical view on inflation. However, the following day brought a 6.2% surprise in the BLS’s producer price index (PPI)2 and gold resumed its march to $1,900 per ounce. On 14 May, the University of Michigan’s one-year consumer inflation expectations spiked to 4.6%. Then, on 25 May, the Conference Board’s twelve month inflation expectations also soared to 6.5%. Finally, on 28 May, the U.S. Federal Reserve’s (Fed’s) preferred inflation gauge, the core Personal Consumption Expenditures (PCE)3 price index, climbed to 3.1%. We assume economists have baked the pandemic base effect into their forecasts. Yet all of these measures beat analysts’ expectations, which suggests inflation maybe becoming more of a problem.
Being that May was basically the first month in 2021 that excessive inflation was actually reported in primary economic indicators, we believe that gold responded relatively nicely with an overall $137.74 (7.6%) gain to end the month at $1,906.87 per ounce. Gold stocks continued to lead gold out of its six-month correction with the NYSE Arca Gold Miners Index4 (GDMNTR) and the MVIS Global Junior Gold Miners Index5 (MVGDXJTR) advancing 14.3% and 14.8%, respectively.
Market measures of five-year inflation expectations are currently in the 2.5% to 3.0% range, which is in line with past post-recession levels. However, it has been many years since investors have had such a strong outlook for inflation. The Fed’s 5-year forward breakeven rate is at seven year highs while 5-year inflation swaps and treasury inflation protected securities (TIPS) breakeven rates are both at levels last seen in 2008.
The Fed, as well as many economists, believe that inflationary pressures will be transitory, brought on by micro- and macro-economic responses to the pandemic. Inflation typically sees a temporary surge as the economy emerges from recession. However, there is mounting evidence that the current environment is less like the one that followed the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) and more like the seventies.
The GFC was a crisis of banking failures and bailouts in which the financial system could not function normally and the Fed was authorized to pay interest on bank reserves for the first time. Unlike the GFC, the banks have remained healthy throughout the pandemic crisis and the financial system has thrived, thanks in part to the Fed’s rapid and massive response. In addition, the government wrote checks to the majority of American families and the money supply has increased as never before outside of World War ll. All of this liquidity has been sloshing around the economy creating financial bubbles. Now it is beginning to create wage and price inflation, and the Fed is loath to do anything about it.
The inflationary regime of the seventies had its roots in the Great Society launched by President Johnson in 1964 – 65. Like today’s Biden agenda, Great Society programs created new major spending on education, medical care, urban problems, poverty and transportation. According to Wikipedia, the main goal was the total elimination of poverty and racial injustice. When two oil price shocks occurred in the seventies, the high price of oil, combined with government spending on social programs and the Vietnam War, drove inflation to double digits.
Oil prices don’t have near the impact on today’s economy that they did in the seventies. However, prices today are rising across a much broader range, from oil to metals, lumber and agricultural commodities. Producers have been less willing to commit capital to increase production in this cycle, while the transition to a green economy is beginning to lift demand and/or costs to levels that may require prices to rise further. Many CEO’s from manufacturing to consumer goods companies speak of rising costs and/or expectations to raise prices this year and next.
In addition to commodities, here are other areas that suggest higher inflation could become more permanent:
The Fed’s preferred inflation indicator (the PCE, as noted earlier) rose 3.1% in April, its fastest pace since 1992. The Fed claims it has the tools to deal with unwanted inflation, but will it use those tools? The Fed raised rates to quell the inflation of the seventies, at the cost of a severe recession in 1981. Back then, the debt/gross domestic product (GDP) ratio was around 25%. Now, with a debt/GDP of around 100%, a similar rise in rates would likely increase debt service costs to ruinous levels. Heavy debt loads tend to dampen economic activity. While former Fed Chair Paul Volker courageously faced a formidable challenge in the seventies, whoever is appointed Fed Chairman in February may face an impossible challenge in a modern Fed that might be reluctant to do anything that causes economic or social hardship.
This is the first time in over 30 years that inflation has become a credible risk. Most working-age people have no experience or memory of an inflationary cycle, when the relentless rise in prices causes purchasing power to decline. Wage increases effectively evaporate year after year. While we won’t know until 2022 whether the recent rise is a temporary aberration of the pandemic, it is not too early to think about possible changes in spending patterns and investing.
Gold reacts to inflation when it becomes excessive and/or out of control. The chart shows that below an annual CPI change of 3%, there is no correlation between gold and the CPI. The correlation turns mostly positive above 3%, and above 4%, a more linear trend is established. In May, gold prices may have crossed a higher threshold if inflation is indeed here to stay.
Source: VanEck, Scotiabank. Data as of April 2021.
All company, sector, and sub-industry weightings as of 31 May 2021, unless otherwise noted.
1The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a measure of the average change over time in the prices paid by urban consumers for a market basket of consumer goods and services.
2The Producer Price Index (PPI) program measures the average change over time in the selling prices received by domestic producers for their output. The prices included in the PPI are from the first commercial transaction for many products and some services.
3The Personal Consumption Expenditures Price Index (PCE) is a measure of the prices that people living in the United States, or those buying on their behalf, pay for goods and services. The PCE price index is known for capturing inflation (or deflation) across a wide range of consumer expenses and reflecting changes in consumer behavior.
4NYSE Arca Gold Miners Index (GDMNTR) is a modified market capitalization-weighted index comprised of publicly traded companies involved primarily in the mining for gold.
5MVIS Global Junior Gold Miners Index (MVGDXJTR) is a rules-based, modified market capitalization-weighted, float-adjusted index comprised of a global universe of publicly traded small- and medium-capitalization companies that generate at least 50% of their revenues from gold and/or silver mining, hold real property that has the potential to produce at least 50% of the company’s revenue from gold or silver mining when developed, or primarily invest in gold or silver.
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