What the Russia-Ukraine Crisis Means for Your Portfolio (Updated)
March 29, 2022
Read Time 7 MIN
To help address investor concerns about the Russia-Ukraine conflict, our Portfolio Managers examine the impact on their respective asset classes and potential allocation changes. Amid ongoing developments that may change how different asset classes are affected, we will be making timely updates below to provide you with our latest views.
The Russia-Ukraine conflict is dominating news headlines. As the world watches how the situation unfolds, many investors may also be concerned about how their portfolios may be affected.
To help address investor questions, we pulled together insights from our Portfolio Managers about the impact on their respective asset classes and potential allocation changes.
- Active Emerging Markets Bond Strategy
- Emerging Markets Debt ETFs
- Emerging Markets Equity
- Bitcoin and Cryptocurrencies
- Energy Considerations
Active Emerging Markets Bond Strategy, updated 3/11/2022
Eric Fine, Portfolio Manager, Emerging Markets Bond Strategy: Ukrainian bonds just got very cheap relative to history. Ukraine bonds collapsed following Russia’s invasion. As of 3/8/2022, shorter-dated bonds (maturing in 2022) are trading at around 36 cents on the dollar, while longer-dated bonds (maturing in 2033) are trading around 23 cents on the dollar. The market is pricing in the certainty of default, clearly. Ukraine is likely to finance itself. According to Ukraine’s external financing requirement, its 2022 financing of $2.7B was fully funded by the official sector, before additional support that is being announced for Ukraine.
Our bottom line is that Ukraine bonds reflect the fact of the invasion, but not the likelihood of new international support. As a result, we are accumulating bonds. We don’t discount that as Russia takes Kyiv, Ukraine bonds could suffer more. But, when the dust settles, we believe a Ukraine that can finance itself easily is likely to emerge. We obviously can’t wait until that scenario becomes obvious, as the bonds will have gapped upward. As a result, we’re accumulating. For additional insight, please read our latest Emerging Markets Bond Strategy update.
Emerging Markets Debt ETFs, updated 3/25/2022
Fran Rodilosso, CFA, Head of Fixed Income ETF Portfolio Management: Sanctions on Russia have had a swift impact on Russian debt—both targeted Russian sovereign and corporate bonds as well as bonds not specifically targeted. Liquidity has been very low as market participants cease trading in these securities and combined with the possibility of defaults, valuations have been driven down, losing almost all value.
Index providers are reacting accordingly, significantly reducing exposure to Russia. We note that the majority of the negative return impact on passive ETFs has already been realized, and U.S.-listed ETFs may be at higher risk of tracking error. Liquidity is currently very thin, though this could change. For additional insight, please read: Russia and EM Bond ETFs: What Comes Next?
Emerging Markets Equity, updated 3/10/2022
David Semple, Portfolio Manager, Emerging Markets Equity Strategy: The Russian invasion of Ukraine has created shifts in investment portfolios across asset classes globally. As the Ukraine-Russia conflict has developed, we have significantly reduced overall Russia exposure and continue to closely monitor the situation. Russia exposure within the portfolio was reduced to 1% as of the end of February. The remaining exposure is currently concentrated in four companies that are domestic demand, local consumer-driven names. For more detail on current portfolio position and additional insight on the current situation, please read our latest Emerging Markets Strategy update.
In general, higher commodity prices tend to coincide with better emerging markets performance, but usually this comes with better global growth expectations, which is not the case now. Some countries fare better in a higher commodity environment, such as South Africa, Brazil and Indonesia, whilst net importers such as India can struggle with the cost of energy imports, as an example. Commodities apart, Russia’s trade linkages with major emerging markets countries are very low. But broader commodity price increases have caused increasing chatter about stagflation. The silver lining is that those fears may cause developed market central banks to be more cautious in rate increases, and the largest economy, China, is actively easing. Broadly across emerging markets—having already hiked rates in many places and with less of an inflation issue than the U.S.—real rate differentials are very high. Basic balances, current account and foreign direct investment are at 15-year highs.
In times like these, we remind investors to focus on long-term structural growth. Successful, long-term, global investors survive short-term falls by sticking to investment principles that have withstood the tests of time. For investment portfolios more broadly, this may include better diversification across asset classes (equities, fixed income and alternatives) and markets (developed and emerging). For emerging markets equities in particular, investing in forward-looking, sustainable and structural growth companies with strong balance sheets and stable earnings has historically given resilience to portfolios.
Commodities, updated 3/7/2022
Roland Morris, Portfolio Manager and Strategist: Now that the Russia-Ukraine war is looking like the worst possible case, markets are reflecting the rising commodity supply risks. Ukraine and Russia together are critical supply sources for several very important commodities. Europe depends on Russia for the majority of its natural gas and crude oil imports, which flow by pipeline mostly through Ukraine. Together, Russia and Ukraine are the major suppliers of wheat, sunflower oil and fertilizers to Europe and the Middle East. Additionally the record prices in Europe for natural gas and electricity are shutting down fertilizer and aluminum production. Russia is also a very important producer of aluminum, nickel and palladium. All of these commodities were in short supply before the war, and in the near term, we believe there is no easy fix to the supply shortages.
Gold, updated 2/28/2022
Joe Foster, Portfolio Manager, Gold Strategy: As safe haven assets, we believe gold and gold stocks stand to gain the most from the Russian invasion of Ukraine. This conflict has raised risks globally as hostilities in other parts of the world may also escalate. U.S. sanctions on Russia have driven energy prices higher, further increasing inflationary pressures.
We have already positioned our Gold Strategy for stronger gold prices that we expect to be driven by inflation and the risks to the economy and markets posed by the coming U.S. Federal Reserve rate hiking cycle. The Strategy is fully invested in gold mining stocks, thereby potentially achieving leverage to gold price gains.
Bitcoin and Cryptocurrencies
Matthew Sigel, Head of Digital Assets Research: Thinking longer term, if Russia manages to claim Ukraine and maintain control over Europe’s future energy supply without a violent NATO response, Bitcoin’s value to the Kremlin may grow as a counterbalance to the U.S. Russian President Vladimir Putin has previously noted “certain competitive advantages” in the country when it comes to mining, given the energy surplus.1 Official Russian policy for bitcoin has not yet been set.
It is worth noting that the Nasdaq 100 has had more 1 standard deviation daily moves vs. its 5-year average this year than Bitcoin, according to Bloomberg. Bitcoin’s relative volatility continues to demonstrate a long-term downtrend. $39,400 and $32,400 are the 61.8% and 76.4%, respectively, retracements of 2020’s post-election breakout from what was then fresh all-time highs. Bitcoin’s hash rate (total electricity draw) spiked to an all-time high this week, according to Blockchain.com, indicating that suppliers are gearing up for more usage.
Among smart contract platforms, a risk-off environment2 has previously led to Ethereum outperforming other smart contract protocols, though this relationship is somewhat tenuous in my view.
Energy Considerations, updated 3/8/2022
Shawn Reynolds, Portfolio Manager, Natural Resources Equity: The Russian oil ban is the biggest disruption to energy markets since the Arab oil embargos of the 1970s. However, this situation is worse, in our view, because it could eventually entail all commodities. Russia is the second largest producer of energy, materials and agriculture products in the world. The U.S. is the largest, and has shale oil and an agriculture industry that basically increases food availability/security every year.
This is most definitely not true for Europe, which has essentially been off-shoring carbon emissions by increasing reliance on exports of everything from oil, natural gas, most metals, and a significant portion of its agriculture products. The only way this gets fixed in Europe is via a long term re-investment plan in its resources-related infrastructure (both traditional and alternative). I believe this will be extremely expensive and commodity intensive, hence the rumor of an EU mega-bond issuance.
When combined with continuing reopening, an opening and easing China, and lingering pandemic stimulus, the likelihood of a super cycle across all commodities seems more apparent. And this is not likely to go away with the transition to a metals-based energy system putting global energy security in the hands of China, with the resulting reaction of continued reshoring of green resources.
There will be economic pain globally, but the U.S. is in the best shape—although we may have to choose the lesser of evils between Iran and /or Venezuela. This is only going to exacerbate the political quagmire of the EU, with different countries likely to have dramatically different views and capabilities to survive this. This could very well lead to new political blocs being formed.
Finally, we should pay attention to the MENA region. Some countries are clearly exporters of energy, while others are net consumers, and the entire region is highly dependent on agriculture/food imports.
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1 The Street, “Vladimir Putin, Russia Boasts Competitive Advantages in Bitcoin Mining," 1/26/2022.
2 A risk-off environment is when investor sentiment turns bearish and investors are reducing risk.
Important Information Regarding Cryptocurrencies.
The information herein represents the opinion of the author(s), an employee of the advisor, but not necessarily those of VanEck. The securities/ financial instruments discussed in this material may not be appropriate for all investors. The appropriateness of a particular investment or strategy will depend on an investor’s individual circumstances and objectives.
This material has been prepared for informational purposes only and is not an offer to buy or sell or a solicitation of any offer to buy or sell any security/financial instrument, or to participate in any trading strategy.
Certain statements contained herein may constitute projections, forecasts and other forward looking statements, which do not reflect actual results, are valid as of the date of this communication and subject to change without notice. Information provided by third party sources are believed to be reliable and have not been independently verified for accuracy or completeness and cannot be guaranteed. VanEck does not guarantee the accuracy of third party data. References to specific securities and their issuers or sectors are for illustrative purposes only.
Cryptocurrency is a digital representation of value that functions as a medium of exchange, a unit of account, or a store of value, but it does not have legal tender status. Cryptocurrencies are sometimes exchanged for U.S. dollars or other currencies around the world, but they are not generally backed or supported by any government or central bank. Their value is completely derived by market forces of supply and demand, and they are more volatile than traditional currencies. The value of cryptocurrency may be derived from the continued willingness of market participants to exchange fiat currency for cryptocurrency, which may result in the potential for permanent and total loss of value of a particular cryptocurrency should the market for that cryptocurrency disappear. Cryptocurrencies are not covered by either FDIC or SIPC insurance. Legislative and regulatory changes or actions at the state, federal, or international level may adversely affect the use, transfer, exchange, and value of cryptocurrency.
Investing in cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, comes with a number of risks, including volatile market price swings or flash crashes, market manipulation, and cybersecurity risks. In addition, cryptocurrency markets and exchanges are not regulated with the same controls or customer protections available in equity, option, futures, or foreign exchange investing. There is no assurance that a person who accepts a cryptocurrency as payment today will continue to do so in the future.
There may be risks posed by the lack of regulation for cryptocurrencies and any future regulatory developments could affect the viability and expansion of the use of cryptocurrencies. Investors should conduct extensive research before investing in cryptocurrencies.
Emerging Market securities are subject to greater risks than U.S. domestic investments. These additional risks may include exchange rate fluctuations and exchange controls; less publicly available information; more volatile or less liquid securities markets; and the possibility of arbitrary action by foreign governments, or political, economic or social instability.
J.P. Morgan GBI-EM Global Core Index tracks bonds issued by emerging markets governments and denominated in the local currency of the issuer.
All investing is subject to risk, including the possible loss of the money you invest. As with any investment strategy, there is no guarantee that investment objectives will be met and investors may lose money. Diversification does not ensure a profit or protect against a loss in a declining market. Past performance is no guarantee of future results.
Information provided by VanEck is not intended to be, nor should it be construed as financial, tax or legal advice. It is not a recommendation to buy or sell an interest in cryptocurrencies.
Van Eck Associates Corporation
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